John died when he was 50 in 1711 in Lynn as the inventory of his estate was taken on July 11, 1711.
Old Style Calendar
Before 1752 the year began on Lady Day, March 25th,. Dates between January 1st and March 24th were at the end of the year. Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are used to indicate whether the year has been adjusted. Often both dates are used.
Essex County, Massachusetts was created on May 10, 1643 by the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, when it ordered "that the whole plantation within this jurisdiction be divided into four sheires."
from Genealogical and Personal Memoirs, Volume 2 by William Richard Cutter
General Samuel Graves, son of Samuel Graves (2), was born in Lynn, Massachusetts, August 2, 1684. He married, February 8, 1708, Elizabeth Lewis, born April 7, 1684, daughter of John Lewis Jr. and Elizabeth his wife. Among their children was a son Samuel.
Any man entering a colony or becoming a a member the church, was not free. He was not forced to work, but his movements were carefully observed to see if they followed the Puritanical ideal. After this probationary period, he became a "freeman." Men then took the Oath of a Freeman where they vowed to defend the Commonwealth and not to overthrow the government.
American colonists continued to use British monetary units, namely the pound, shilling and pence for which £1 (orli) equalled 20s and 1s equalled 12d. In 1792 the dollar was established as the basic unit of currency.
Estate inventories give us a glance into the home life of Colonial Americans.
Essex Institute Historical Collections by Essex Institute, Peabody Essex Museum, 1907
John Lewis, born in Lynn, Mar. 30, 1660, was a lieutenant, and was made a freeman Apr. 18,1691. In the division of his father's lands he had the south half next the sea. He died intestate about a year after his father, and his widow Elizabeth was appointed administratrix, June 27, 1711. The inventory of his estate, taken July 11, 1711, is as follows:
To an house, barn, & land adjoining to about twenty acres or more, 160 00 00
To 15 acres upland & meadow in same field, 60 00 00
To 7 acres Salt Marsh, 42 00 00
To Common Lotte, 42 00 00
To Forty sheep & two swine, 10 00 00
To Cow & Tools for husbandry, 4 07 00
To Wareing Cloth [clothes] & Gun, 11 11 00
To Fodder, beds & bedding, £8, & house
hold stuff, £4 05, 12 05 00
To Cash, 4 10 00
Real Estate £304, Personal, £67 13 0
Debt due the estate, 12 0
£68 5 0
Dr to sundry creditors, 83 9 8
Allowance for youngest son until 6 years of age, 24 0 0
Total, £118 16 2
John Lewis married Elizabeth Brewer, April 18, 1683, in Lynn.
Children of John and Elizabeth, born in Lynn: Elizabeth [Lewis], b. April 7, 1684; m. Feb. 8, 1708-9, Samuel Graves, Jr., b. Aug. 2, 1684, in Lynn, son of Samuel and
Sarah (Brewer) Graves, and had the following children
born in Lynn:
(1) Samuel, b. Jan. 19, 1710;
(2) Sarah, b.
Feb. 1, 1713; m. (int. Nov. 16, 1735), Job Collins.
Hannah [Lewis], b. Jan. 22, 1685-6; m. Nov. 13, 1711, Lieut. Samuel Stocker, b. Nov. 29,1684, son of Ebenezer and Sarah (Marshall) Stocker of Lynn. She died Dec. 16, 1760. Children, born in Lynn:
(1) John, b. Feb. 15,1711-12; m. 1st, Hannah Richards, m., 2nd, Ruth Breed;
(2) Samuel, b. July 28,1717, (twin); m., 1st, Elizabeth , pub. Oct.21,1743; m., 2d, May 25,1757, Priscilla Rhodes;
(3) Joseph, b. July 28,1717, (twin).
Samuel Stocker's mother and his wife Hannah Lewis' grandmother, were sisters, both being daughters of Capt. Thomas Marshall.
Sarah, b. April 5, 1688; d. young John, b. Sept . 23, 1690; d. young. Nathaniel, b. Jan. 18, 1692-3; d. young. Edmund, b. Dec. 8, 1695.
Rebecca [Lewis], b. June 18, 1699; m. Feb. 17, 1725-6, Grover Pratt, son of Richard and Rebecca Pratt of Malden. He died Jan. 14, 1790. Had:
(1) Richard, b. Nov. 27, 1728, in Lynn; d. Apr. 25, 1816; m. his cousin, Rebecca, dau. of Nathaniel, Jr. and Tabitha (Lewis) Ingalls, born Dec. 20, 1732. His Common Place Book has been published.
Tabatha [Lewis], b. July 22, 1702; m. Jan. 1, 1722, at Lynn, Nathaniel Ingalls, Jr., b. Dec. 25, 1692, son of Nathaniel and Anne Ingalls. He d. Sept. 23, 1772.
Thomas, b. May 10, 1708.
Cattle were vital to a household and an important legacy.
Unweaned cattle are calves.
Female cattle are heifers and cows (had a calf).
Male cattle are steers (castrated) and bulls.
Oxen are trained draft animals and are often castrated adult male cattle.
Women played an essential role in American society as mothers and homemakers.
Salt marshes which are between the ocean mud flats and grassy uplands, were desired by colonial farmers because salt marsh hay is more nutritious for cattle.