Frederick County, Virginia was formed in 1743 from Orange County. Old Frederick County included all or part of four counties in present-day Virginia: Shenandoah, Clarke, Warren, and Frederick, as well as five in present-day West Virginia: Hardy, Hampshire, Berkeley, Jefferson and Morgan.
An early American tavern (or ordinary) was an important meeting place and they were strictly supervised. Innkeepers were respectable members of the community. Taverns offered food and drink. An inn also offered accommodation.
James Wood, Sr. was born about 1697 in England. He attended Oxford University and was a lieutenant in the Royal Navy.
He immigrated to America.
About 1735, he acquired land "on the branches of the Opequon."
In 1738, he built the first Glen Burnie in Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia.,
In 1738 he married Mary Rutherford.
Mary and James' children probably included:
Elizabeth Wood (1739, married Alexander White),
James Wood, Jr. (1741, married Jane Moncure),
Mary Wood (1742),
John Wood (1743, married Susannah Baker), and
Robert Wood (1747, married Comfort Welch).
On the petition of William Hoge, Jun. for leave to keep Ordinary at his House in the County, License is granted him for one year, he having paid the Governor's fees, together with James Wood Gent, his security, entered Bond according to law.
In 1754, William Lupton received an additional 225 acres adjoining his own land and that of Colonel James Wood, Sr. and James Lemmon.
In 1754, James, Sr. was a colonel in the Frederick County militia and was in the campaign against the French.
In 1758, James Wood, Jr. witnessed a lease in Frederick County.
James died in 1759.
The 1759 Frederick County rent roll included James Wood, Colonel James Wood and John Wood.
In 1762, James Wood appeared in the Shenandoah Store Day Book in Winchester.
In 1764, the rent roll included Mrs. Mary Wood, James Wood, and Colonel James Wood.
In 1770, Robert Wood was appointed "to View the Ground from Hogs Creek to Jesse Pugh’s Mill & from the said Mill to Marlbro Furnace."
In 1782, the Frederick County rent roll included John Wood.
Opequon Creek is tributary of the Potomac River. It joins the Potomac northeast of Martinsburg and its source is at the foot of Great North Mountain. It is part of the boundary between Frederick and Clarke counties in Virginia and between Berkeley and Jefferson counties in West Virginia.
A grist mill is a building where a miller grinds gain into flour.
Joseph Wood was born about 1755 in Chester County, Pennsylvania. He was the son of William Wood.
1764 a Joseph Wood was on the Frederick County rent roll.
In 1780, Joseph married Rachel Lupton. Rachel was the daughter of Joseph Lupton.
In 1781, Joseph and Rachel were disowned at Hopewell for their premarital relations.
In 178,3 he purchased land on Hogue Creek in Frederick County and built a flour mill.
Joseph requested to be reinstated in 1785 at Hopewell. A committee was appointed to visit him. He was married contrary to discipline.
In 1787, Joseph moved to Parkins Mills in Frederick County where he continued as a miller.
In 1798, he was reinstated at Hopewell.
Joseph Wood forwarded a paper to this Meeting condemning his former Misconduct to wit
Whereas I have had a birthright and Education with the people call'd Quakers but for want of taking heed to the dictates of truth which would have preserved me from Evil I have so far deviated as to be disowned for which I am Sorry. I desire my friends will pass by my offence and receive me again under their care as my future conduct may tender me worthy
given under my hand this 5th day of the 11th month, 1798
In 1798 he was granted a certificate from Hopewell to Crooked Run Monthly Meeting.
In 1804 he purchased land on Redbud Creek near Winchester and built a large mill.
At the time of the 1810 census, Joseph was in Frederick County. The household consisted of:
a man over 45
a man and a woman between 26 and 44
2 boys and a girl between 16 & 25
2 girls between 10 & 15
a boy and a girl under 10
Joseph died in 1815.
The Society of Friends (Quakers) began in England in the 1650s, when they broke away from the Puritans. Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn, as a safe place for Friends to live and practice their faith.
In 1749, Thomas Wood witnessed a lease in Frederick County, Virginia.
Thomas Wood was on the 1759 and 1764 rent roll.
In 1773, John Blue purchased 312 acres, from Thomas Wood.
In 1782 the Frederick County rent roll included Thomas Wood.
In 1762 Mr. and Mrs. William Wood, Sr. and their son Johny, Mr. and Mrs. Jeremiah Wood, and William Wood and his son, William appeared in the Shenandoah Store Day Book in Winchester.
In 1766 William Wood was granted 100 acres in the Powell's Fort tract.
1764 Jeremiah Wood was on the Frederick County rent roll.
from Hopewell Friends History, page 169-170"
Joseph Wood, a native of Chester County, Pa., settled in earlylife in Berkeley County, Va. In 1783 he purchased land on Hogue Creek in Frederick County and there erected a flour mill. In 1787 he removed to one of the Parkins mills which he operated for some years. In 1804 he purchased land on Red Bud Creek,about four miles northeast of Winchester, where he erected a large mill and lived until his death in 1815. Joseph Wood was much esteemed among Friends and was active in the development of the milling industry in early days.
A Dower is a provision for a wife's support should her husband die before her. Her dower right was the use of ⅓ of her husband's estate. The dower was settled on the bride at the time of the wedding.
from Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and Their Descendants by Thomas Kemp Cartmell
James [Wood] the founder married Mary the daughter of Captain Thomas Rutherford, the first Sheriff of Frederick; and as Col. Wood and Capt. Rutherford were living in Old Orange County in 1738, we assume the marriage was solemnized in that County. The following is copied from an old note-book of James Wood, now in possession of one of his descendants, daughter of Col. Glass:
Children of James Wood Jr. and Mary Rutherford—
(1) Elizabeth, born Sept. 20, 1739
(2) James "Jany. 28, 1741
(3) Mary "Sept. 23, 1742
(4) John "Jany. 1, 1743—44
(5) Robert, "July 27, 1747.
The following is taken from the family records: Elizabeth married Hon. Alexander White —no children.
James married Jane Moncure, leaving no descendants. He was Col. of a Regt. during the Revolutionary War; promoted Brig. Genl. for gallant services, and Governor of Virginia 1790— 1802. At that date he was president of the Virginia Society of Cincinnati at Richmond (See Va. Mg. of Hist., Vol. 1, pp. 95—6—7.)
Mary Wood married Col. Mathew Harrison, an officer in the Revolutionary Army....
John Wood, son of James was a physician; he married Susannah Baker, and left many descendants.
Robert Wood, youngest son of James Wood and Mary Rutherford, married Comfort Welch. List of their children as follows: James, Mary, Robert, William, Sarah Ann, Comfort, Catherine, Harriet and Julia. This large family lived at Glen Bumie.
Mary Rutherford, widow of James, held her dower in the homestead as provided for in the will of her husband, which was probated 1760; and at her death, about forty years thereafter, her son Robert became sole owner. Only three of the nine children married: